• Added sugars

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    These sugars, syrups, and other caloric sweeteners are added when foods are processed or prepared. Added sugars do not include sugars that occur naturally, like fructose in fruit or lactose in milk. Names for added sugars include brown sugar, cane sugar, corn sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose (when not naturally occurring), fruit juice concentrates, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose (when not in milk or dairy products), maltose, malt syrup, molasses, raw sugar, sucrose, and turbinado sugar.

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  • Additives

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    Additives are substances added to food to improve flavor, color, and texture or to preserve foods to help extend the shelf life.

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  • Caffeine

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    Caffeine is a natural stimulant found in coffee, tea, chocolate and some energy drinks. As a stimulant caffeine may increase heart rate and alertness but can also cause insomnia and restlessness. Caffeine also acts as a diuretic and can cause dehydration and headaches.

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  • Caffeine toxicity (overdose)

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    This occurs when someone takes in more than a normal or recommended amount of caffeine. This can be by accident or on purpose.

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  • Calories

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    Calories are a measurement of energy.

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  • Carbohydrate

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    Carbohydrates are the most readily converted energy source. Good sources include rice, bread, cereal, legumes, fruits and vegetables which also provide important nutrients.

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  • Diabetes

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    A disease caused by the inability of the body to control the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 1 diabetes results from the bodys inability to produce insulin in the pancreas and Type 2 diabetes is due to the body cells developing resistance to insulin.

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  • Diet

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    What a person eats and drinks. Any type of eating plan.

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  • Dietary Guidelines

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    provides evidence-based food and beverage recommendations for Americans ages 2 and older. These recommendations aim to:

    • Promote health
    • Prevent chronic disease
    • Help people reach and maintain a healthy weight
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  • Energy drink

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    Any beverage that contains high levels of a stimulant ingredient, usually caffeine, as well as sugar and often supplements, such as vitamins or carnitine, and that is promoted as a product capable of enhancing mental alertness and physical performance.

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  • Fat

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    A major source of energy in the diet, fat helps the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. Some kinds of fats, especially saturated fats and trans fatty acids, may raise blood cholesterol and increase the risk for heart disease. Other fats, such as unsaturated fats, do not raise blood cholesterol. 

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  • Fortify

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    To add vitamins or minerals to a food.

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  • Fructose

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    Fructose is a type of sugar that is found naturally in fruit and honey.

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  • Glucose

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    Glucose is a simple sugar derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates. Glucose is a major source of fuel for the body, particularly the brain.

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  • Heart disease

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    Many different types of heart disease exist. The most common cause of heart disease is narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. This is called coronary artery disease and happens slowly over time. It's the major reason people have heart attacks. Other kinds of heart problems may happen to the valves in the heart, or the heart may not pump well and cause heart failure.

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  • Hydration

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    The process of replacing water in the body. This can be done through drinking water, eating ice chips, eating foods that have high water content, or drinking other fluids.

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  • Lactose

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    Lactose is the sugar found in milk. The body breaks it down to glucose and galactose.

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  • Metabolism

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    Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur in our body that turn what we eat into energy. This energy can then be used for all activity including walking, talking, thinking and breathing.

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  • Minerals

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    Nutrients that are involved in many of the body's activities. It is found in meat and leafy green vegetables.

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  • Nutrients

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    Nutrients are substances obtained from food that we require for metabolism or physiological processes. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water are all nutrients.

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  • Nutrition

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    The process by which the body takes in and uses food.

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  • Nutritional Facts panel

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    A label that provides information about the calories and nutrients that the food contains.

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  • Nutritional supplement

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    A nonfood pill, power, or liquid that contains vitamins, minerals, or other healthful substances that some people want to add to their diet.

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  • Obesity

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    Obesity refers to excess body fat.

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  • Portion size

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    The amount of a food served or eaten in one occasion. A portion is not a standard amount. The amount of food it includes may vary by person and occasion.

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  • Processed food

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    A food that has been specially treated or changed. Processed foods have been seasoned, mixed with other ingredients, or preserved for freshness.

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  • Protein

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    Protein is important for growth of body cells and makes up virtually every part of the body. Protein can be found in dried peas, soy and baked beans, peanut butter, nuts, eggs, cheese, lean meat, fish and wholegrains.

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  • Recommended daily intake

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    Recommended daily intake (RDI) is the average daily amount of all known nutrients that need to be consumed to maintain good health.

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  • Refined

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    Refined refers to the process where foods are stripped of their coarse outer layers and many nutritional aspects. For example, wholegrain wheat is refined to produce white flour.

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  • Saturated fat

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    A fat that contains only saturated fatty acids, is solid at room temperature, and comes chiefly from animal food products. Some examples of saturated fat are butter, lard, meat fat, solid shortening, palm oil, and coconut oil. Saturated fat tends to raise the level of cholesterol in the blood.

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  • Serving size

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    A standard amount of a food, such as a cup or an ounce.

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  • Sugar

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    A sweet substance that is used to make food and drinks sweet. It is usually in the form of small white or brown crystals.

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  • Sugar-sweetened beverages

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    Drinks that are sweetened with added sugars often add a large number of calories. These beverages include, but are not limited to, energy and sports drinks, fruit drinks, soda, and fruit juices.

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  • Trans fats

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    Harmful fats found in hydrogenated, or partially solidified, oils such as margarine and shortening. Chips, cookies, crackers, and cakes usually have trans fats, which may provide even more cholesterol than saturated fats. 

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  • Unsaturated fat

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    A fat that is liquid at room temperature and comes from a plant, such as olive, peanut, corn, cottonseed, sunflower, safflower, or soybean oil. Unsaturated fat tends not to raise the level of LDL ('bad') cholesterol in the blood.

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  • Vitamins

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    Nutrients that control chemical processes in the body.

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  • Water

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    Water is one of the nutrients that our body requires for health and it makes up 50-70% of our body weight. All cells in the body require it and adequate water intake helps prevent dehydration. 6-8 glasses of water are required each day, more than this may be required during hot weather or for active people.

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  • Weight control

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    This refers to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight with healthy eating and physical activity.

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  • Whole grains

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    Grains and grain products made from the entire grain seed, usually called the kernel, which consists of the bran, endosperm, and/or germ. If the kernel has been cracked, crushed, or flaked, it must retain nearly the same relative proportions of bran, endosperm, and germ as the original grain in order to be called whole grain. Many, but not all, whole grains are also a source of dietary fiber.

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